IEEE 1679.2-2018 pdf free.IEEE Guide for the Characterization and Evaluation of Sodium-Beta Batteries in Stationary Applications.
The ftillowing rcterenced documents arc indispensablc for the application of ibis document (i.c., they must be understood and used, so cach referenced document is cited in text and its relationship to this document is explained). For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.
IEEE Std l679TM2OlO, IEEE Recommended Practice for the Characterization and Evaluation of Emerging Energy Storage Technologies in Stationary Applications.
3. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions
For the purposes of this document, the ftllowing terms and definitions apply. The IEEE Standards Dictionary Online4 and IEEE I 8X I Standard Glossary of Stationary Battery Terminologyl B7 should be consulted for terms not defined in this clause.
molten-salt battery: a class of battcncs that use molten salts as an electrolyte. See also: Sodium-Beta cell
Sodium-Beta cell: a ccli containing molten or semi-molten sodium and another material, which act as the negative and positive electrodes respectively.
Sodium “-alumina: An impermeable white ceramic, consisting of-alumina (-Al2O3)complcxcd with sodium ions, used in Sodium-Beta batteries as a separator and electrolyte.
sodium-nickel chloride: A Sodium-Beta cell using nickel chloride as the main material in the positive electrode.
NOTE Most dcs.gns also include iron chloride in the positive so they are technically sodium-nickel-iron chloride cells’
sodium-metal chloride: A generic name for a family of sodium-based cells using one or more chlorinated metal compounds as the positive electrode material.
sodium-metal halide cell: See: sodium-metal chloride.
sodium-sulfur cell: A Sodium-Beta cell using sulfur as the positive electrode material.
4. Document structure
Clause S through Clause 9 of this document follow the clauses of IEEE Std 1679-2010. Information specific to sodium batteries is included where appropriate. Additional subclauses have been added to this document where further guidance is required.
5. Technology descriptions
5.1 General
Refer to ClauseS of IEEE Std 1679-2010. This clause describes the main sodium batteries that are either used or arc being considered for stationary battery applications. These include sodium-metal halide and sodium- sulfur. The information provided in this clause relates primarily to the energy storage system components of these technologies and docs not address power conversion and grid interconnections.
5.2 Storage medium
5.2.1 General
In general, Sodium-Beta batteries utilize a hermetically sealed case to contain sodium and another material, which act as the positive and negative electrodes of an electrochemical energy storage system. These materials must operate at an elevated temperature as to be in a molten or semi-molten state (260 °C to 350 °C). A solid electrolyte that is commonly made from a “.alumina ceramic provides the physical and electrical separation between the two molten materials.
During the charging process, an external voltage is imposed on the battery, which oxidizes the active material in the positive electrode, liberating sodium ions. The sodium ions diffuse through the ceramic and are reduced to metallic sodium, resulting in a charged battery. When a load is connected between the electrodes, a flow of the electrons is then able to pass from the positive electrode to the negative electrode resulting in the reduction of sodium ions that diffuse back through the ceramic. This diffusion allows the component remaining on the positive electrode to be oxidized.
5.2.2 Sodium-metal halide
The term “sodium-metal halide” describes a class of electro-chemistries, of which sodium-nickel chloride is the most common. Sodium-metal halide batteries consist of a nickel chloride and sodium-aluminum chloride as the positive electrode, sodium as the negative electrode, and utilize a solid electrolyte of -alumina ceramic that separates both electrodes. The chemistry of the sodium-nickel chloride battery becomes active when the temperature reaches about 260 °C. The open-circuit voltage of sodium-nickel chloride cell chemistry is about 2.5 V. while operating at an internal temperature in a range of approximately 250 °C to approximately 350 °C. Depending on the application, a sodium-nickel chloride battery may discharge as low as about L7 V per cell. The nominal recharge voltage is about 2.7 V per cell (see Figure I).IEEE 1679.2 pdf download.