IEEE Std 356-2020 pdf free.IEEE Guide for Measurements of Electromagnetic Properties of Earth Media.
The scope of the project is to cover measurements of the electrical properties of naturally occurring solids. Not covered are methods that rely on mapping earth structure anomalies unless directly related to electrical properties. There is limited coverage of numerical methods for forwardinverse modeling.
This document is needed for ground plane assessment for locating antennas; formation mapping to obtain geological information: assessment of ore-grade quality: moisture content, salinity; propagation prediction and srndics: aquifer studies for water search, nuclear waste disposal. dam location; ground-penetrating radar research; prospecting.
The word shall indicates mandatory requirements strictly to be followed in order to conform to the standard and from which no deviation is permitted (shall equals is required to).4
The word should indicates that among several possibilities one is recommended as particularly suitable, without mentioning or excluding others: or that a certain course of action is pret’errcd but not necessarily required (should equals is recommended that).
The word rntw is used to indicate a course of action permissible within the limits of the standard (may equals is permitted to).
The electromagnetic properties of earth (conductivity wi in sicmensJmcter (S/rn), pcrmittivity c in farads/meer (F/rn), and magnetic permeability p in henries/meter (H/m)J can have a major cfrect upon the performance of electrical and electromagnetic systems. Examples of these systems include both communications systems and remote-sensing systems. For example, the electrical properties of the earth beneath an antenna can influence the antenna efficiency (and the need for a metallic ground plane) and radiation pattern, and these properties also can limit the effective depth of ground-penetrating radar. Many different methods and techniques have cvolved for the measurement of the electrical properties of the earth at and near the surface at radio frequencies, and other methods using lower frequencies were developed for measuring the conductivity deeper into the earth for geophysical prospecting and other applications.
This guide is intended to describe these methods (both the theory and field methodology) and provide references for further reading for each method. The descriptions represent the recommended practice of these techniques. There is a further aflemp to provide guidance on the limits of applicability of the methods (e.g.. in frequency or in geographical context).
This guide has been prepared by the Antennas and Propagation Standards Committee of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society to replace the document, IEEE Std 356-1974, IEEE Guide for Radio Methods of Measuring Earth Conductivity [118], which was also published by de Bettencourt ci al. LB6J. In 1974, Lytle [B IS] also published a comprehensive review paper.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has published world surface conductivity maps for a number of frequency bands (ITU-R Recommendation P. 832-2 [119]). although hese maps are no longer being updated. The curves of conductivity and relative pcrmittivity in ITU-R Recommendation 527-3 [B 10] exhibit no dispersion in the band 3 MHZ to 30 Mhz, whereas measured values show significant dispersion in this band for which surface soils typically can show characteristics from good conductors to lossy dielectrics (King and Smith [B12J). The real and imaginary parts of the complex relative pennittivity form a Ililbert transform pair. As a result, the conductivity and relative permittivity are not independent variables. Their mutual dependence is described by the Kramnvrs—Kronig relations EKing and Smith [1112]). Therefore, the ITU values for the high-frequency (I-IF) band are inconsistent with the results of complex variable theory and are in error.IEEE Std 356 pdf download.