ISO 16835-2014 pdf free download.Refractory products – Determination of thermal expansion.
ISO 16835 specifies test methods for the thermal expansion of refractory products. It describes a method for determining the linear thermal expansion percentage, the linear thermal expansion curve, and the linear thermal expansion coefficient.
This International Standard includes the following three test methods for the thermal expansion of refractory products:
a) a contact method with a cylindrical test piece;
1) a contact method with a rod test piece;
c) a non-contact method.
The characteristics of these methods are shown in Annex A.
2 Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 836, Terminology for reiractories
IEC 60584-1, Thermocouples — Part 1: Reference tables
IEC 60584-2, Thermocouples — Part 2: Tolerances
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 836 and the following apply.
3.1 starting point temperature T0 starting point temperature for collecting thermal expansion results, (record ambient temperature)
3.2 reference material materials with a known linear thermal expansion (percentage) and coefficient
4 Contact method with cylindrical test piece
4.1 Principle
The amount of dimensional change of the cylinder test piece is continuously measured by using a contact type measurement instrument while heating at the specified rate in a heating furnace, and the linear thermal expansion rate, curve of linear thermal expansion rate, average coefficient of linear thermal expansion, and coefficient of linear thermal expansion are obtained.
4.2 Apparatus
4.2.1 Thermal expansion test apparatus General
The circular pressure rod (1), test piece (5), and supporting rod (9) of the thermal expansion test apparatus shall be set in a heating furnace and all central axes aligned vertically. This alignment shall be maintained throughout the test as shown in EigurI and Eigur2. The structure of the apparatus shall be such that the thermal expansion of the test piece produced when a pressure of 0,01 MPa is applied to the direction of this central axis and the temperature is raised can be calculated from the relative change amount of the length of detecting tubes (7) and (8) contacted with the spacers (2) and (6) of the upper surface and the lower surface of the test piece. The contact force shall not change more than ±1 N.ISO 16835 pdf download.