ISO 16903-2015 pdf free.Petroleum and natural gas industries – Characteristics of LNG, influencing the design, and material selection.
ISO 16903 gives guidance on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the cryogenic materials used in the LNG industry. It also gives guidance on health and safety matters.It is intended to act as a reference document for the implementation of other standards in the liquefied natural gas field. It is intended as a reference for use by persons who design or operate LNG facilities.
2 Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies EN 1473, Istalation and equipment for liquefied natural gas一Design of onshore installations NFPA 59A, Standard for the production, storage, and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1 boil-off gas gas generated during the storage or handling of volatile liquefied gases
3.2 condensate hydrocarbon liquid that forms by condensation from natural gas, consisting primarily of pentanes (C5H12) and heavier components
Note 1 to entry: There will be some propane and butane dissolved within the mixture. liquefied natural gas LNG colourless and odourless cryogenic fluid in the liquid state at normal pressure composed predominantly of methane which can contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, or other components normally found in natural gas
3.4 liquefied petroleum gas LPG gaseous hydrocarbons at normal temperatures and pressures, but that readily turns into liquids under moderate pressure at normal temperatures, e.g. propane and butane.
4 Abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this International Standard, the following abbreviations apply.
BLEVE boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion
liquid petroleum gas
QRA quantitative risk analysis
RPT rapid phase transition
SEP surface emissive power
5 General characteristics of LNG
5.1 General
It is recommended that all personnel concerned with the handling of LNG should be familiar with both the characteristics of the liquid and the gas produced.
The potential hazard in handling LNG stems mainly from three important properties.
a) It is extremely cold. At atmospheric pressure, depending upon composition, LNG boils at about
-160 °C. At this temperature, the vapour is denser than ambient air.
b) Very small quantities of liquid are converted into large volumes of gas. One volume of LNG produces approximately 600 volumes of gas.
c) Natural gas, similar to other gaseous hydrocarbons, is flammable. At ambient conditions, the flammable mixture range with air is from approximately 5 % to 15 % gas by volume. If vapour accumulates in a confined space, ignition can result in detonation and shock wave overpressure.
This International Standard focuses on LNG, its properties, and resultant hazards. When evaluating the hazards at an LNG site, designers need to consider all systems present. Often, the LNG itself does not present the greatest hazard; other systems such as LPG-based refrigeration at the liquefaction plant or high pressure gas send out at a regasification plant can dominate the overall site risk profile.ISO 16903 pdf free download.