PD IEC TS 62994:2019 pdf free.Photovoltaic (PV) modules through the life cycle- Environmental health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment – General principles and nomenclature.
4.3.2 Process identification
Hazard identification is the process to examine the plausible capacity of a substance to causeadverse health and environmental effects. lt uses toxicological data and complementaryinformation such as structure-activity analysis.
ln manufacturing PV cells,health of workers and environment of working place may beadversely affected by different classes of chemical and physical hazards. In this process,chemical properties such as material toxicity,corrosivity,flammability,and explosiveness ofall chemicals should be investigated.
These hazards differ for different PV technologies and semiconductor deposition processes.Some of the main hazards associated with specific PV technologies are summarized belowand include HF acid burns,SiH4 fireslexplosions, and Pb solderlmodule disposal for c-Si;SiH。fires/explosions for a-Si;Cd toxicity and module disposal for CdTe; H,Se toxicity andmodule disposal for ClS,CIGS; As toxicity, H, flammability,and module disposal from GaAs;Pb toxicity and module disposal for perovskite.
Asphyxiant: argon, helium, methane, nitrogen trifluoride
Corrosive: boron trifluoride,hydrochloric acid,hydrofluoric acid,silicon tetrachloride,sodium hydroxide
lrritating: ammonia,boron trifluoride,diborane,hydrogen selenide,hydrogen sulfide,phosphorus oxychloride
Flammable or explosive: hydrogen,hydrogen sulfide, methane, phosphine,silane. Toxic: lead,arsenic, cadmium, indium, selenium,hexavalent chromium. response evaluation
Dose response assessment is the process in which the quantitative relationships betweenexposure and the effects of concern are examined.The determination of whether there is ahazard is often dependent on whether a dose-response relationship is present.
lmportant issues include:
The relationship between the extrapolation models selected and available information on biological mechanisms
How appropriate datasets were selected from those that show the range of possiblepotencies both in laboratory animals and humans
The basis for selecting inter-species scaling factors to account for scaling doses fromexperimental animals to humans
Relevance of the exposure routes used in the studies to a particular assessment and theinterrelationships of potential effects from different exposure routes
The relevance to the assessment of the expected duration of exposure and the exposuredurations in the studies forming the basis of the dose-response assessment
The potential for differing susceptibilities in population sub-groups
Dose averaginglaveraging exposure.
NOTE 1 More detailed information can be obtained from ‘Environmental Health Risk Assessment Guidelines forassessing human health risks from environmental hazards enHealth (Commonwealth of Australia 2012 ).
Human health dose response data for a large database of chemicals is maintained in the u.S.EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The data covers the ingestion and inhalationexposure routes and includes non-cancer reference doses,cancer slope factors,andinhalation unit risks as well as supporting toxicological studies and uncertainty factors. A large database for human health dose response data is also maintained in the EU by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA).PD IEC TS 62994 pdf download.